Ethnographic Arms & Armour
 

Go Back   Ethnographic Arms & Armour > Discussion Forums > Ethnographic Weapons
User Name
Password
FAQ Members List Calendar Search Today's Posts Mark Forums Read


Reply
 
Thread Tools Search this Thread Display Modes
Old 24th September 2013, 12:06 AM   #1
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile MOST DESIRED OCEANIC WAR CLUBS 4: SAMOA

I START THIS HERE AS PLANNED FOR THE SERIES SO I CAN KEEP THINGS IN ORDER.
THE ISLANDS OF SAMOA LIKE THE FIJI ISLANDS HAVE QUITE A LOT OF INFLUENCE FROM TONGA BUT LIKE FIJI HAVE THEIR OWN UNIQUE DESIGNS AS WELL. MANY CLUB FORMS ORIGINATED FROM THE SAME NATURAL SHAPES THE MOST PREVELENT BASIC FORM IS FROM THE COCONUT LEAF STALK, IN SAMOA THIS FORM OF CLUB IS CALLED ( LAPALAPA ). THEY ARE CARVED USING AN ADZ. CUTTING FROM THE CENTER LINE TO THE EDGES WHICH FORMS 4 ANGLED FLAT SURFACES WITH A THICKER RIB IN THE MIDDLE AND EDGES TO THE SIDES. THE STRIKING END OF THE CLUB IS WIDE AND TAPERS TO THE SMALLER ROUND GRIP. THIS COPIES THE COCONUT LEAF STALK, IF THE COCONUT LEAF WERE MADE OF HEAVY WOOD THEY COULD HAVE BEEN CONVERTED DIRECTLY INTO CLUBS. PERHAPS THE LEAF STALKS MAY HAVE BEEN USED FOR CLUB PRACTICE AS NOT MUCH HARM WOULD COME FROM SPARING WITH THEM.
THE LAPALAPA'S EARLY FORMS WERE LIKELY QUITE SIMPLE AND SOME HAD BRAIDED SENNIT BANDS IN GROUPS OF 3 TURNS FORMING RINGS ON THE CLUBS STRIKING END. LATER THESE CORD BANDS WERE REPLACED WITH CARVED WOOD RIDGES THAT "MAY " HAVE LEAD TO THE ADDING OF TEETH TO SAMOAN CLUBS. WHEN THESE RIDGES EXTEND BEYOND THE CLUBS STRIKING EDGES CONCENTRATING POWER TO A SMALLER AREA.
THE BUTT END (HANDLE/ GRIP) ON SAMOAN CLUBS FLARES OUT BUT DOES NOT HAVE A FLANGE AS FOUND ON SOME FIJI OR TONGAN CLUBS. THERE IS OFTEN A LUG WITH A HOLE FOR A CORD ON THE BUTT OF SOME FORMS OF SAMOAN CLUBS BUT IT IS ABSENT ON SOME FORMS AS WELL.
1. PICTURE SHOWING COCONUT TREE AND LEAF AND PARTS THERE OF.
2. PICTURE SHOWING PLAIN LAPULAPU AND VARIATIONS EVOLVING FROM THE SIMPLE ORIGINAL FORM.
3 & 4 & 8 A OLD STONE CARVED EXAMPLE HEAVY TONGAN INFLUENCE.44 X5 INCHES FIGURE 8 SHOWS TOP EDGE.
5. 29.25 INCH EXAMPLE WITH A FORKED END
6 & 7. 37 INCH MODERN EXAMPLE, SAMOA
9. 26 X 2.5 IN. VARIATION OF LAPULAPU
10. A PICTURE OF AN EXAMPLE BROUGHT BACK BY CAPTIAN COOK.
11. SAMOA WARRIOR WITH LAPULAPU CLUB
12. ANOTHER PAGE OF VARIATIONS OF LAPULAPU
Attached Images
            

Last edited by VANDOO : 24th September 2013 at 04:47 PM.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 24th September 2013, 03:07 AM   #2
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

A FEW MORE EXAMPLES OF THE LAPALAPA, COCONUT STALK FORM WITH A FEW VARIATIONS.
PICTURES 1. & 2. MODERN EXAMPLE WITH CONTEMPORARY DESIGNS 44 INCHES LONG.
PICTURE #6 IS 91 X 17 X 5 CM.
THE OTHER PICTURES OF SEVERAL VARIATIONS OF FORM WITH SOME THAT CROSS OVER TO ANOTHER FORM. ONE 1950 PICTURE OF TWO MEN MAKEING A CLUB THE OLD WAY.
Attached Images
            

Last edited by VANDOO : 24th September 2013 at 04:49 PM.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 24th September 2013, 11:28 AM   #3
KraVseR
Member
 
KraVseR's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2013
Location: Ukraine
Posts: 128
Default

Wow! Thank you!
Forward to continuing)
KraVseR is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 24th September 2013, 11:39 AM   #4
KraVseR
Member
 
KraVseR's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2013
Location: Ukraine
Posts: 128
Default

I think that on second image are not lapalapa. They described as talavalu, eight-spiked club. Or you think that talavalu - is the species of lapalapa?
KraVseR is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 24th September 2013, 11:44 AM   #5
KraVseR
Member
 
KraVseR's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2013
Location: Ukraine
Posts: 128
Default

I drew three warriors of Samoa. Is that correct?
Figures 1 and 2: The pre-colonial Samoan warriors.
Figure 3: Samoan chief, 19th century.
Attached Images
 
KraVseR is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 24th September 2013, 04:58 PM   #6
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

IN THE FIRST POST SECOND PICTURE A & B ARE LAPALAPA FORMS THE OTHER TWO ARE TOOTHED CLUBS BUT ONE CAN STILL SEE THE 4 SIDED RIBBED CENTER FORM. YOUR PICTURES ARE GOOD EXCEPT IN PICTURE 1 THE WARRIOR HAS A AX SHAPED CLUB WHICH CAME ALONG QUITE A BIT LATER AFTER STEEL AXES HAD BEEN INTRODUCED. THE LARGER BLADED DECORATED FORMS SEEN ON EBAY ARE FAIRLY RECENT AND FOR THE TOURIST MARKET. SOME ARE GREAT WALL HANGERS THOUGH.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 24th September 2013, 07:10 PM   #7
KraVseR
Member
 
KraVseR's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2013
Location: Ukraine
Posts: 128
Default

First warrior has the wooden fighting axe, like this:
Attached Images
  
KraVseR is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 28th September 2013, 04:57 PM   #8
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

THE BASIC FORM USED IN MAKEING MOST CLUBS IS THE COCONUT LEAFSTALK THE NEXT BASIC FORM IS SAID TO BE THE BANNA LEAF ( LAUFA'I ). THE MAIN DIFFERENCE IS THE BANNA LEAF HAS A ROUNDED STRIKING END NOT FLAT AS IN COCONUT STALK FORMS. I AM HAVING TROUBLE FINDING A BASIC PICTURE OF THIS FORM AS IT AND THE PADDLE CLUBS ARE SO SIMULAR IN MANY WAYS.
1.BANNA LEAF TO SHOW GENERAL SHAPE.
2. AN EXAMPLE OF COCONUT STALK AND BANNA LEAF FOR COMPARISON. I THINK THESE ARE TONGAN IN ORIGIN BUT MAY BE SAMOAN .
3. THE END LOOKS LIKE BANNA LEAF FORM BUT THE REST IS MODIFIED HEAVY TONGAN INFLUENCE OR TONGAN MADE?.
4. SEVERAL CLUBS THE ONES WITH ROUNDED END ARE BANNA LEAF THE FLAT ENDS ARE COCONUT STALK. ALL ARE TONGAN STATE CLUBS
5. A FEW MORE OF THE GENERAL BANNA LEAF FORM
I DON'T HAVE PICTURES OF CERTIFIED SAMOAN EXAMPLES OF THIS FORM AND AM HAVING TO USE TONGAN EXAMPLES FOR ILLISTRATION SO WILL MOVE ON TO OTHER BASIC FEATURES OF SAMOAN CLUBS.
TONGAN AND SAMOAN CLUBS HAVE A FLAIR TO THE BUTT (PROXIMAL END) WITH NO FLANGES AS FOUND IN SOME CLUBS FROM FIJI. SEE FIGURE #6
TONGAN AND SAMOAN CLUBS OFTEN HAVE LUGS ON THE PROXIMAL END FOR ATTACHING A CORD FOR HANGING OR AS A LANYARD. THIS LUG IS NOT FOUND ON FIJI CLUBS BUT AS TONGAN INFLUENCE WAS STRONG THEY ARE PRESENT IN FIJI AS WELL. SEE FIG. #7 FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF LUG
SOME PICTURES MAY BE PADDLE FORM RATHER THAN BANNA LEAF THE LINE BETWEEN THE TWO IS VERY CLOSE.
OLDER SAMOAN CARVED DESIGNS WERE NOT AS ORNATE AND DID NOT CONTAIN HUMAN FIGURES AS FOUND ON TONGAN CLUBS. THE DESIGNS ON THE OLD ONES WERE DEEPLY CARVED AND FILLED WITH WHITE LIME. THE DESIGNS OFTEN RESEMBLE THE TAVATAVA DESIGNS OF FIJI BUT AS IT IS A BASIC DESIGN MAY HAVE ORIGINATED INDEPENDENTLY IN SEVERAL PLACES. SEE PICTURES 8,9 &10
THE NEW WAY DESIGNS ARE BEING MADE TODAY ARE DIFFERENT THEY COAT THE CLUB IN BLACK AND THEN SCRATCH THE BLACK OFF DOWN TO THE WOOD MAKEING THE DESIGNS, WHITE LIME IS SELDOM USED THESE DAYS. THE NEW DESIGNS ARE MORE COMPLEX AND ATTRACTIVE THAN THE OLD IN SOME CASES BUT I PREFER THE OLD WAY, BEAUTY IS IN THE EYE OF THE BEHOLDER. SEE PICTURES 11 & 12
Attached Images
            

Last edited by VANDOO : 28th September 2013 at 06:13 PM.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 29th September 2013, 03:18 AM   #9
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

THE PADDLE SHAPED CLUBS ( FOE, EQUALS PADDLE ) IN SAMOAN ARE ANOTHER FORM WITH VERY SIMULAR OR THE SAME FORM CLUBS FOUND IN TONGA AND FIJI AS WELL AS SAMOA. THERE ARE VARIATIONS IN THE FORM THOSE WITH A OVATE SHAPE AND POINTED ARE REFERED TO AS (AMUAMU ).
I THINK PICTURES 1 THRU 5 ARE OF THE AMUAMU FORM. CLUB #1 IS 3 FEET LONG.
#6. WALLACE ISLANDERS, SAMOA
# 7 & 8. PLATES OF THE VARIOUS PADDLE FORMS SOME MAY BE SAMOAN OR TONGAN.
Attached Images
           

Last edited by VANDOO : 29th September 2013 at 04:07 AM.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 29th September 2013, 12:42 PM   #10
KraVseR
Member
 
KraVseR's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2013
Location: Ukraine
Posts: 128
Default

6 picture shows a Samoan warriors?
KraVseR is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 30th September 2013, 09:12 PM   #11
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Red face

I HAD THEM IN WITH SAMOA AS I HAVE SEEN WALLIS IS. CLUBS REFERED TO AS SAMOAN. BUT I DIDN'T RESEARCH FURTHER AND IT TURNS OUT THE WALLIS ISLANDS ARE NOT SAMOAN BUT LOCATED IN THE MIDDLE OF THE AREA BORDERING SAMOA, TONGA, FIJI, ECT. TOO LATE TO EDIT SO I WILL HAVE TO LEAVE THE PICTURE THERE.
THE CLUBS WOULD FIT IN THE PADDLE CATEGORY THIS FORM IS WIDELY DISTRIBUTED AND THERE ARE A LOT OF SMALLER HAND CLUBS IN THIS FORM AS WELL AS THE LONGER ONES.
SO I MIGHT AS WELL COVER WALLIS ISLANDS HERE. THE MAIN 3 ISLANDS ARE UVE'A MOST POPULATED, FUTUNA AND ALOFI. ALOFI IS UNPOPULATED BECAUSE REPORTEDLY THE CANNIBAL RESIDENTS OF FUTUNA ISLAND ATE THEM ALL IN ONE RAID IN THE 19 TH. CENTURY. I WONDER IF THEY SMOKED WEED AND GOT THE MUNCHIES? THATS A SCARY THOUGHT A TRIBE OF CANNIBALS WITH THE MUNCHIES
#1 EXAMPLE OF WALLIS ISLAND CLUB, 108.5 CM. LONG
PADDLE CLUBS USUALLY RANGE IN SIZE FROM 40 TO 47 INCHES.
Attached Images
 

Last edited by VANDOO : 1st October 2013 at 04:34 PM.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 1st October 2013, 04:43 AM   #12
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

THE REFRENCE I AM USING FOR SAMOA REFERS TO POLE CLUBS AS BILLET CLUBS AND SEPARATES THEM INTO TWO TYPES 1. ROUND BILLET CLUBS AS WE FOUND IN FIJI THEY ARE REFERED TO BY THE TONGAN NAME IN SAMOA ( POVAI)
2. FOUR SIDED BILLET CLUBS USUALLY IN SAMOA THE SIDES ARE NOT EQUAL TWO ARE NOT AS THICK AS THE OTHERS, SOME BEING CLOSER TO SQUARE THAN OTHERS. THIS FORM IS FOUND IN TONGA AND FIJI AS WELL. PERHAPS BOTH FORMS ARE REFERED TO AS POVAI IN SAMOA?
THE WOOD PREFERRED FOR MAKING CLUBS IN SAMOA WAS CALLED PAU BUT IRONWOOD WAS ALSO USED.
THE TWO FORMS OF BILLET CLUBS USUALLY FORMED A BLUNT END THE SQUARE FORMS OFTEN HAD A LUG AT THE PROXIMAL END.
PIC. #1 & 2 SQUARE FORM OF BILLET CLUB ,TONGA, FIJI AND SAMOA?
PIC. #3 & 4 CLOSE TO PALM STALK FORM BUT MAY FALL INTO BILLET FORM? 53 CM.LONG.
PIC. # 5 VARIOUS SAMOAN CLUBS THE FIRST TWO ON THE LEFT ARE POVAI.
PIC. #6 POVAI WITH HOLE AND LANYARD.
Attached Images
      

Last edited by VANDOO : 1st October 2013 at 05:10 AM.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 1st October 2013, 09:38 AM   #13
Billman
Member
 
Join Date: Nov 2010
Posts: 128
Default

Hi, not my area of expertise - but one that I wander to occasionally as some of the Oceanic war clubs appear to be shaped like large wooden billhooks...

My query is did this shape exist before European explorers visited and settled the islands, or were they an attempt to copy an iron and steel tool they had seen in the hands of the 'white man'?????
Attached Images
   
Billman is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 1st October 2013, 03:51 PM   #14
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

THE FIRST PICTURE LOOKS TO BE A WOODEN COPY OF A MACHETE AND WAS NOT AROUND BEFORE CONTACT. THERE MAY HAVE BEEN SOME SIMULAR FORM OF WOODEN TOOL USED AS THE BLADE SHAPE SERVES WELL FOR VARIOUS CHORES.?
ACCORDING TO WHAT I HAVE READ THE MAORI CLUBS LIKE YOUR PICTURE #3 WAS IN USE BEFORE CONTACT WITH EUROPEANS. IT WAS ONE OF 3 BASIC FORMS OF SHORT CLUBS AND WAS CALLED WAHIKA.
THE 2ND PICTURE IS OF A SAMOAN NIFO OTI THERE WAS A CLUB FORM BEFORE CONTACT BUT THE EXAMPLE YOU SHOW, BECAUSE OF ITS SHAPE IS LONG AFTER CONTACT. ACCORDING TO WHAT I HAVE READ THE STEEL FORERUNNERS OF THIS FORM IS THE BLUBBER KNIVES USED BY WHALERS. IT HAD A BLADE MUCH LIKE YOU SEE HERE AND A HOOK USED TO DRAG THE CHUNKS OF BLUBBER AFTER THEY WERE CUT. BLUBBER IS TOO SLIPPERY AND GREASY TO MOVE BY HAND OR WITH TONGS SO HOOKS AND HOLES WITH TOGGLES WERE USED.
THE SAMOANS LIKED SHARP STEEL AS A WEAPON AND A LARGE STEEL BLADE WAS MUCH MORE FORMIDIBLE THAN WOODEN CLUBS. THE BLADE FORM MAY HAVE BEEN A REGULAR WHALEING TOOL OR COULD HAVE BEEN MODEFIED TO FASHON IT WITH A HOOK LIKE THE NIFO OTI CLUB AS THE NATIVES PREFERRED? TRADE WAS ESTABLISHED AND WHALERS BROUGHT EXTRA BLADES TO TRADE IN SAMOA FOR PROVISIONS AND FAVORS. THEY WERE USED FOR WORK AS WELL AS WAR AND CEREMONIE.
THE FORM LATER WAS USED FOR THE KNIFE DANCE AND STILL LATER THE FIRE KNIFE DANCE. THE WOODEN ONES LIKE YOUR EXAMPLE WERE MOSTLY FOR TOURISTS OR USED FOR CEREMONIES. SOME OLDER WOODEN ONES MAY HAVE BEEN USED IN BATTLE BY THOSE WHO COULD NOT AFFORD A STEEL ONE.
UNFORTUNATELY I CAN'T FIND A PICTURE OF THIS COMBINATION KNIFE AND HOOKED WHALEING TOOL. I FIND LONG KNIVES AND SPADES AND HOOKS ON POLES BUT NOTHING LOOKING LIKE THE SAMOAN KNIFE. BUT SOMEONE WROTE IT DOWN SO IT MUST BE TRUE
I FOUND THIS PICTURE OF WHALEING TOOLS.
Attached Images
 

Last edited by VANDOO : 1st October 2013 at 05:01 PM.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 1st October 2013, 05:10 PM   #15
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

STRANGELY THE ROOTSTOCK CLUB DID NOT FIND ITS WAY TO SAMOA ALTHOUGH THE FORM WAS USED A LOT IN FIJI AND SOME IN TONGA.
THE (FA'AAUFALA) CLUB WAS PATTERNED AFTER THE PANDANUS FRUIT AND HAS THE SPIKES AND KNOBS SOMETIMES REFERRED TO AS THE MACE. THESE CLUBS ARE USUALLY 30 INCHES OR LESS.
1. SAMOAN MACE CLUB
2 & 3 RECENT SAMOAN MACE CLUB
4 & 5. SAMOAN MACE FORM 1930'S LIKELY NOT A MACE BUT THE TOP OF A CEREMONIAL STAFF USUALLY 2 SEEN FLANKING THE SEAT OF ROYALTY DURING CEREMONIES 29 INCHES LONG , APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN SAWED OFF FROM A LONGER POLE.
Attached Images
     

Last edited by VANDOO : 1st October 2013 at 05:54 PM.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 2nd October 2013, 06:36 PM   #16
Billman
Member
 
Join Date: Nov 2010
Posts: 128
Default

Many thanks

Natives adopted/adapted Euopean tools as well... The first image is from my archive (poached from the web) as Samoan, the second as Maori....

The whaling knife has a native made handle. The spiked billhook is unique - the forge weld indicates a possible marriage of an old billhook blade to a boarding axe. The two axe heads are early, probably pre 1850...
Attached Images
  
Billman is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 3rd October 2013, 12:37 AM   #17
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

BEAUTIFUL EXAMPLES I ESPECIALLY LIKE THE UNUIQUE MAORI AX WITH THE BILLHOOK,AX HEAD. THE OTHER ONE IS VERY COOL WITH A WHALEBONE HANDLE.
IT IS INTERESTING TO NOTE THE AX HEADS WERE VERY POPULAR TRADE GOODS WITH THE MAORI AS WELL AS OTHER OCEANIC PEOPLES AND IN THE AMERICAS AS WELL. THE SAMOANS NO DOUBT LIKED THEM TOO BUT THE SAMOAN HOOKED KNIFE WAS MORE POPULAR AS A TRADE ITEM THERE AND IS NOT SEEN ELSEWHERE AS FAR AS I KNOW.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 3rd October 2013, 01:14 AM   #18
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

UNILATERAL TOOTHED CLUBS, ONLY ONE EDGE WITH TEETH. THERE ARE NO DOUBT OTHER FORMS IN SAMOA BUT THE NIFO OTI IS THE MOST POPULAR AND IS PERHAPS THE CLUB THAT BEST REPRESENTS SAMOA. WHY THIS IS REMAINS UNKNOWN TO ME SO MY GUESS WOULD BE THAT SOME FAMOUS WARRIOR OR CHIEF FAVORED THIS CLUB AND MADE IT FAMOUS.
NIFO =TEETH OTI = TO CUT, THE HOOK IS SAID TO HAVE BEEN USED TO CARRY THE SEVERED HEAD OF THE ENEMY HOME (TRUE OR FALSE ?) BUT IT IS A RECURRING STORY AND I HAVE HEARD IT TOLD ABOUT THE PHILIPPINE HEAD AX BACK SPIKE AS WELL.
THE BASIC FORM IS STARTED THE SAME AS THE COCONUT LEAF STALK CLUBS WITH THE HOOK CARVED ON ONE SIDE OF THE CENTER RIDGE AND THE TEETH ON THE OTHER. THE TEETH ARE USUALLY OF THE FORM WITH FOUR SIDES AND WITH EITHER NO SPACE OR VERY LITTLE BETWEEN THEM. FOR SOME REASON MANY NIFO OTI ARE USUALLY NOT CARVED WITH THE LUG AT THE PROXIMAL END FOR TIEING A CORD. VARIOUS EXAMPLES OF THE CLUB THE 4 TH CLUB IS FROM 1880. ONE PICTURE IS OF A NIFO OTI AND A ( FA' AAUFALA MACE CLUB. THE PICTURE OF THE WARRIOR WITH THE KNIFE FORM OF NIFO OTI WAS TAKEN IN 1908.
Attached Images
            

Last edited by VANDOO : 3rd October 2013 at 03:00 AM.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 3rd October 2013, 03:34 AM   #19
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

#1 THERE ARE SEVERAL FORMS OF TEETH USED IN POLYNESIAN / OCEANIC CLUBS HERE IS A PICTURE SHOWING THE VARIOUS FORMS.
SEVERAL PICTURES OF THE EARLY FORMS OF NIFO OTI THAT HAD NO TEETH OR HOOK. THIS IS SPECULATION AS THE FORMS EXHISTED AT THE SAME TIME BUT THIS IS A FORM LIKELY TO HAVE EVOLVED INTO THE TOOTHED CLUB WITH HOOK. THIS CLUB DID HAVE A EDGE FOR STRIKING WHERE THE TEETH WERE LATER PLACED AND STRANGELY THE FORM WENT BACK TO THE EDGED FORM WITH THE ARRIVAL OF STEEL BLADES.
SEVERAL EXAMPLES AND ONE EXAMPLE THAT IS A UNILATERAL TOOTHED EAR FORM AND A BILATERAL TOOTHED FORM OF NIFO OTI.
Attached Images
            
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 3rd October 2013, 03:59 AM   #20
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

HERE ARE THE HOOKED AND BLADED FORMS OF THE NIFO OTI CLUB IN BOTH WOOD AND STEEL.
THE TWO WOODEN ONES PICTURED TOGETHER ARE PRE 1940.
THE BOOK PLATE WITH TWO EARED CLUBS AND 2 NIFO OTI IS FROM 1917
Attached Images
            
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 3rd October 2013, 09:35 AM   #21
Billman
Member
 
Join Date: Nov 2010
Posts: 128
Default

Hypothesis - the Samoans has wooden clubs with or without teeth, but with a decoratiive (?) back hook before European contact. The similarity with hooked blubber knives, maybe seen on whaling ships that stopped at the islands, or maybe by Samoan crew members who worked on them, led to the adoption of steel blades, made in England during the early 19th century. Like the tomahawks that were traded with native americans by both English and French traders, these blubber knives were traded for valuables (e.g. pearls) with native Samoans.

My first image, above shows an obvious wooden copy of a machete, complete with carved rivet heads on the handles. Several of your later images, show a style of war club that is almost identical in shape to an English double edged billhook - it would be interesting to know if this shape predates European contact, or is a wooden copy of a billhook????

Below: left a Westmoreland pattern with a double edge, right a Hertfordshsire pattern with a single edge, but a curved hook on the back. There are many other regional patterns of double edged billhooks.
Attached Images
  
Billman is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 3rd October 2013, 06:31 PM   #22
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

IN THE POST ABOVE THERE IS A PICTURE OF 4 CLUBS THE LAST ONE TO THE RIGHT MAY BE THE CLOSEST TO A BILL HOOK. THIS BOOK WAS PUT OUT IN 1917 AND THE CLUBS COLLECTED BEFORE THAT AND MAY HAVE BEEN OLDER WHEN COLLECTED. I SUSPECT THE FORM WAS PRESENT IN SAMOA BEFORE CONTACT BUT CAN NOT BE SURE. THE ISLANDS WERE DISCOVERED IN THE EARLY 1700'S THE BRITISH ARRIVED AND BECAME ACTIVE THERE IN 1722 AND MISSIONARIES AND TRADERS ARRIVED IN THE 1830'S. GERMANY STARTED PLANTATIONS THERE SEVERAL YEARS LATER AND THE UNINTED STATES ARRIVED IN 1877. ALL 3 COUNTRIES HAD ALLIENCES WITH DIFFERENT SAMOAN TRIBES AND THIS LED TO TWO SAMOAN CIVIL WARS STARTING IN 1886 AND ENDING IN 1899. THE BILL HOOK WOULD UNDOUTABLY HAVE ARRIVED FOR WORK ON PLANTATIONS AND WOULD ALSO SERVE AS A WEAPON TO USE AGAINST OPPOSING FACTIONS. THIS IS LIKELY WHEN LARGE NUMBERS OF BILLHOOK /CANE KNIVES/ NIFO OTI WOULD HAVE BEEN IMPORTED. THE EUROPEAN POWERS WOULD HAVE BEEN CAREFUL NOT TO SUPPLY THE SAMOANS WITH FIREARMS BUT NO DOUBT SUPPLIED LOTS OF BLADED WEAPONS AND TOOLS. THE WHALERS MAY NOT HAVE PLAYED A IMPORTANT PART IN THIS BUT THE EARLY BLUBBER KNIVES MAY HAVE STARTED THE DESIRE OF THE SAMOANS FOR THE NIFO OTI FORM OF KNIFE INITIALLY. ALL JUST CONJECTURE
THE SAMOANS DID TAKE HEADS SO THE STEEL WEAPONS MADE THIS ACTIVITY MUCH EASIER SO CLUBS BECAME SECONDARY WEAPONS WHERE STEEL WAS AVAILABLE.
I WONDER IF TOOLS SUCH AS THE BILLHOOK WERE USED ON SHIPS? THEY WORK WELL FOR CLEARING AN AREA AND COULD BE USED TO CLEAR A CAMP OR PATH ON LAND BUT WHAT WOULD A CARPENTER OR SAILOR USE ONE FOR ON A SHIP? A MODIFIED BILLHOOK MAY HAVE BEEN USED FOR FLENSING WHALE BLUBBER , THE LONG HANDLE AND BLADE WOULD BE GOOD FOR MAKEING THE LONG DEEP CUTS AND THE HOOK ON THE BACK USED TO MOVE THE STRIPS OF BLUBBER. THERE SHOULD BE LOTS OF INFORMATION ON WHALEING IN MUSEUMS AS IT WAS A JOB ROMANTISIZED AND WRITTEN ABOUT A LOT IN THE HEYDAY OF THE BUSINESS. THE HAZZARDS OF THE PROFESSION FAR EXCEEDED ANY OF TODAYS TV PROGRAM MOST DANGEROUS JOBS.

Last edited by VANDOO : 3rd October 2013 at 07:08 PM.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 4th October 2013, 07:36 PM   #23
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Default

A BIT MORE SAMOAN HISTORY I CAME ACROSS. THE ISLANDS HAD LARGE SANDLEWOOD TREES AND THE ISLANDERS USED THE OILS FOR MEDDICINAL PURPOSES. THE LEAVES WERE USED FOR THE FUNERAL BED AND THE WOOD WAS BURNED AT THE FUNERALS OF CHIEFS AND IMPORTANT PEOPLE. THE EUROPEAN SANDLEWOOD TRADE STARTED IN SAMOA IN 1860'S TO 1900 WHEN THE SANDLEWOOD WAS ALL GONE. THIS TRADE MOVED FROM ISLAND TO ISLAND WITH THE SAME RESULTS EVERYWHERE IT WENT.
THIS WOULD HAVE BEEN YET ANOTHER OUTSIDE INFLUENCE THAT CHANGED ISLAND LIFE AND BROUGHT IN NEW IDEAS AND STUFF.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 14th October 2013, 05:30 AM   #24
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

THE FIRST 6 PICTURES ARE THE LAST OF THE UNILATERAL TOOTHED CLUBS.
#3 & #4 THREE EXAMPLES OF NIFO OTI THE SMALLEST ONE FROM 1920 OR BEFORE 36 IN.,32 IN. ,& 22IN. LONG.
PICTURES #1 & #2 OF WOODEN FORMS OF THE KNIFE 25 INCHES & 17 IN. LONG,
PICTURE #5 OF A RECENT EARED AND TOOTHED FORM.
PICTURE #6 A OLD STEEL WORK KNIFE MAY HAVE BEEN USED AS A WEAPON 35.5 INCHES LONG.

THE NEXT FORM IS BILATERAL TOOTHED CLUBS (TEETH ON BOTH SIDES) CALLED ( FA'ALAUFA'I ) SEE PICTURES 7 THRU 12
ONE FORM IS REFERED TO AS 8 SPIKED CLUBS THEY HAVE 4 TEETH ON EACH SIDE TOTALING 8. THE TOOTH COUNT SEEMS TO BE UNIMPORTANT AFTER 8 FOR SOME REASON AS THERE ARE NO 10 OR 12 SPIKED CLUBS. . ONE PICTURE OF 3 CLUBS WOULD BE REFERRED TO AS A TOOTHED PADDLE FORM LONG ONES 38 IN.AND SHORT ONE 21.5 IN.
THE OTHER PICTURES OF A CLUB WITH A MORE ROUNDED END FAVORS THE BANNA LEAF FORM AND HAS THREE SETS OF 8 TEETH EACH.
Attached Images
            

Last edited by VANDOO : 14th October 2013 at 07:46 PM.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 14th October 2013, 07:57 PM   #25
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

SEVERAL MORE VARIATIONS OF BILATERAL TOOTHED CLUBS. SOME APPEAR TO HAVE A TOOTHED STRIKING AREA WHILE OTHERS SEEM TO HAVE THE TEETH NEAR THE GRIP PERHAPS TO KEEP THE ENEMY FROM GRABBING THE CLUB THERE. THE SHORTER ONES USUALLY HAVE THE TEETH NEAR THE GRIP AND LIKELY FUNCTIONED MORE FOR STABBING AND THRUSTING THAN FOR SKULL OR BONE BREAKING.
TWO PICTURES OF A RECENT CLUB IN BANNA LEAF FORM SHOWING MODERN STYLE DECORATION 37 IN. LONG, TALAVALU IS THE NAME IN THE DESCRIPTION.
TWO PICTURES OF A CLUB WITH SPIKES ON 4 SIDES NEAR THE GRIP.
THREE PICTURES OF A CLUB WITH A SHARP THRUSTING END AND TOOTHED GRIP 33.5 X 4 IN. WIDE LATE 1800'S.
#12 A PICTURE OF 4 OLD CLUBS CIRC 1817
#11. TRADITIONAL OLD TALAVALU FORM
Attached Images
            

Last edited by VANDOO : 14th October 2013 at 11:18 PM.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 15th October 2013, 12:31 AM   #26
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

MORE VARIATIONS OF SAMOAN TOOTHED CLUBS.
PICTURES # 1, 2 & 3 TALAVALU FORM,
#4 PLATE WITH 4 CLUBS ONE SHOWING THE SIMPLE BLANK FORM BEFORE TEETH ARE ADDED.
#5 PLATE OF THE SAMOAN STATE CLUBS
#6 A SPIKED FORM 3 VIEWS
#7 THRU 12 VARIOUS FORMS OF TOOTHED CLUBS.
Attached Images
            

Last edited by VANDOO : 15th October 2013 at 12:42 AM.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 17th October 2013, 01:53 AM   #27
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

EAR SHAPED CLUBS FA' ALAUTALINGA, OR LAUTALINGA THE SIZE RANGE FOR THE SHORT FORM IS APPROXIMATELY 18 IN. TO 26.5 IN. LONG.
PICTURES#1 & 2 PLATES FROM A 1917 BOOK
#3. 38 X 18 CM.
#4.& 5. PAGO PAGO 1925, 24INCHES LONG
#6. RECENT EARED CLUB
#7.& 8. ANOTHER RECENT EXAMPLE, 18 IN. LONG
#9. 20 IN. LONG EXAMPLE
#10. ANOTHER RECENT FORM OF EARED CLUB.
#11. A OLD PICTURE FROM A BOOK 1917
#12. A OLD EXAMPLE.
Attached Images
            

Last edited by VANDOO : 17th October 2013 at 02:50 AM.
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 18th October 2013, 10:05 PM   #28
Billman
Member
 
Join Date: Nov 2010
Posts: 128
Default

Wonderful images, thanks very much...

Ref billhooks on ships - it was quite probable a) billhooks are an ideal tool for cutting firewood or splitting kindling for the galley stove b) many ships carried soldiers/marines and a billhook was often carried as an infantry/pioneer tool c) a billhook was often included in an emigrant's tool kit, so may have been carried by early settlers travelling on privately owned ships...
Billman is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 20th October 2013, 05:41 AM   #29
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

A FEW MORE EXAMPLES OF THE EAR SHAPED CLUBS.
PICTURES #1, 2, & 3. IS 18 X 4.5 INCHES.
# 4. 31 INCH LONG FORM FOUND IN TONGA ,SAMOA AND FIJI
# 5 & 6. SAMOAN DANCE PADDLE NOT A CLUB. 28IN. LONG X 8.5 WIDE X 2.25 THICK
# 7. MODERN 36 INCH LONG
# 8 & 9. 67 X 16 CM. OLDER CLUB
# 10 & 11 TWO RECENT EXAMPLES
#12. THE HEAD OF A OLDER CLUB.
Attached Images
            
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 23rd October 2013, 07:19 PM   #30
VANDOO
(deceased)
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: OKLAHOMA, USA
Posts: 3,140
Smile

THE SAMOANS HAD A CLUB FOR THROWING MUCH LIKE THE ULU CLUBS FROM FIJI. THE SAMOAN NAME WAS OLO OR OLEMO THEY WERE SHORT AND MADE OF HARD HEAVY WOOD AND OFTEN HAD A HOLE THRU THE BUTT FOR A CORD. THESE SAMOAN CLUBS HAVE MORE IN COMMON WITH TONGAN CLUBS THAN THE FIJI FORM AND THE GOOD OLD ONES ARE USUALLY NOT DECORATED. I HAVE NOT SEEN MANY EXAMPLES OVER THE YEARS WHICH MAKES ME WONDER IF THEY WERE VERY COMMON IN SAMOA. IF COMMON WHY DO WE SEE SO MANY FROM FIJI AND SO FEW FROM SAMOA AND TONGA?
ANOTHER POSSIBILITY IS SOME OF THE OTHER FORMS OF SHORT CLUBS MAY HAVE BEEN THROWN AND FILLED THIS NICH. THE SHORT WIDE EARED CLUB PICTURE #10 AND THE SHORT CLUB WITHOUT TEETH PICTURE #11 THAT MAY HAVE LED TO THE NIFOOTI FORM ARE GOOD POSSIBILITYS. JUST CONJECTURE AS I HAVE NO REFRENCES
#1. 2. & 3. A OLD EXAMPLE 15.5 INCHES LONG.
#4. A MODERN FANCY TOURIST MODEL
#5. ANOTHER TOURIST VARIATION BOROWING FROM FIJI DESIGN
#6. MODERN TOURIST VARIATION
#7. A OLDER PERHAPS 1960S EXAMPLE BUT STILL FOR TOURISTS
#8 & 9. MODERN EXAMPLES IN FORM BUT MADE INTO FULL SIZE CLUBS #8 IS 25 IN LONG AND #9 CLOSE TO 30IN.
#10. SHORT FORM OF EARED CLUB
#11. SHORT FORM OF EARED CLUB POSSIBLE PREDECESSOR OF THE NIFO OTI TOOTHED CLUBS.
Attached Images
           
VANDOO is offline   Reply With Quote
Reply


Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

vB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Forum Jump



All times are GMT. The time now is 11:00 AM.


Powered by: vBulletin Version 3.0.3
Copyright ©2000 - 2018, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
Posts are regarded as being copyrighted by their authors and the act of posting material is deemed to be a granting of an irrevocable nonexclusive license for display here.