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Old 27th February 2012, 02:42 PM   #91
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Where was that article of yours published? Could you share it with us?

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Old 28th February 2012, 03:58 PM   #92
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Micke D
I think that this one could be from 1480-1490 or something like that, based on the strange and probably early four-axle lock mechanism.

I have written a little article explaining my thoughts about how this one is related to two other 15th c crossbows.

This one wasn't displayed when I was at Leeds either, but the floor with the hunting stuff was closed for rebuilding/rearranging or something like that.

I don't know if it has been displayed in modern times at all? I guess there would be more photos of it if it has been shown.




I found a different view.

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Old 29th February 2012, 05:12 PM   #93
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Default A Leather Quiver, Swiss Country Museum Zürich

This item is labeled as 16th century but I think it should rather be assigned to the 17th c. and was designed for hunting purposes.

Best,
Michael
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Old 11th March 2012, 03:52 PM   #94
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Default A Fine Nuremberg Cranequin Dated 1537

Please note the excellent and complete overall condition, the way that the numeral 7 is struck within Gothic trefoil ornament, the punched decoration which is stylistically characteristic of the period around 1540, the brass- or gold-inlaid maker's mark, an arrow and two pellets, and the leather covered cord loop.
It was hammered down at 6,500 Swiss Francs at Fischer, Lucerne, in September 2010.

This Nuremberg workshop arrow mark is also found on the barrels of matchlock Landsknecht arquebuses preserved in the Bayerisches Armeemuseum Ingolstadt, together with the same date 1537; this group of arquebuses was restocked in 1619 (two images attached).

Best,
Michael
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Old 15th March 2012, 12:22 PM   #95
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Default Romanic and Early to High Gothic Bows and Crossbows in Period Artwork

From top to bottom:

- Spain or Portugal, Romanic, 12th. c.

- Line drawing of an early Gothic German crossbow, 13th c., by Egon Harmuth

- Another, of a Late Gothic German crossbow, 15th c., and of a Renaissance type of 1the 16th c., by the same author

- ca. 1230, from the Maciejowski (or Morgan) Bible, 4 scans

- ca. 1326/7, from the famous de Milemete or Christ Church ms, Oxford

- ca. 1350-55, illustrations of a crossbow and a quiver, Haguenau, France

- ca. 1230, a very rare illustration of a trap war crossbow, by Villard de Honnecourt, ms. fr. 19093, Bibliothèque Nationale Paris

For more on trap crossbows please see

http://www.vikingsword.com/vb/showthread.php?t=15016



More to come.

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Old 15th March 2012, 01:16 PM   #96
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On the cycle of illustrations goes ...

- a very early South Italian illustration of 1196, from the cod. 120, Burgerbibliothek Berne/Switzerland (two scans)

- ca. 1225 (left) and ca. 1300 (right)

- a stone relief from the 12th century

- crossbows from various miniatures in the Luttrell Psalter, ca. 1330, British Library (5 scans)

- English bows vs. crossbows, ca. 1255, from the Historia Anglorum, by Matthew Paris.


To be continued.
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Old 15th March 2012, 01:49 PM   #97
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Smile

- A humble self portrait of Matthew Paris in his Historia Anglorum, ca. 1255 (see three last scans in my previous post)http://www.vikingsword.com/vb/images/icons/icon7.gif

- Crossbows and their early accouterments, spanning belt and quiver, from the Flanders (Bruges?) manuscript The Romance of Alexander, ca. 1340 (5 scans)

- Crossbows, 1308-13 (perhaps can some member please translate the Cyrillic script? )

- 14th c. Belgian crossbows from one of the many versions of the tale on Lancelot du Lac, Province of Hainaut

- ca. 1400

- 14th century

- spanning a High Gothic (ca. 1340) so-called one-foot crossbow both kneeling and standing up, the illustration on the right from the Luttrell ms., cf. my post above


Best,
Michael
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Old 15th March 2012, 03:09 PM   #98
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Matchlock
From top to bottom:
- Spain or Portugal, Romanic, 12th. c.

As per my post #6 .
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Old 15th March 2012, 03:22 PM   #99
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Oh 'Nando,

Now I remember where I stole it from!

Best,
Michl
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Old 19th March 2012, 06:37 PM   #100
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Default Stone Relief, End of 15th. c., in Linköping Cathedral, Sweden

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Old 20th March 2012, 12:14 PM   #101
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This crossbow, ca. 1470, was sold at Fischer, Lucerne, 25 November 1964, and then again in 2011 from the Klingbeil collection.

The spanning belt is a reconstruction.

Best,
Michael
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Old 20th March 2012, 12:19 PM   #102
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The spanning belt replica; in order to get an actually working construction, the leather belt would have to be much more robust than this, built of various intertwined layers.

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Old 20th March 2012, 12:35 PM   #103
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A quiver for crossbow bolts and another for arrows, also from the Klingbeil collection; both were offered as 19th c. reproductions. Both items wore an inventory label from the Cuturhistorische Ausstellung Steyr, Austria, which is known to have taken place in 1884. 332 Objects said to have come from the Steyr museum were presented there.

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Old 20th March 2012, 12:42 PM   #104
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Three more close-ups.

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Old 20th March 2012, 12:48 PM   #105
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A good South German (Nuremberg?) cranequin for a crossbow, ca. 1540, with rare brass inserts, and retaining its original bound and leather-covered cord loop, the belt hook missing.
From the Klingbeil collection.

Both the maker's mark, a crescent and two stars, and the style of manufacture denote that this came from the very same workshop as the cranequins in posts 85 and 87.

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Old 20th March 2012, 09:43 PM   #106
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A Late Gothic Crossbow, the tiller completely veneered in white staghorn, early 16th century, and some quarrels in the Tojhusmuseet Copenhagen.

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Old 24th March 2012, 09:47 PM   #107
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Default early cranequins

Hi to everyone,

I´m new in this forum and I have already read several interesting topics during the last few months.
I do a late fiftenth century reenactment and I´m very much interested in crossbows. In order to reunite these two hobbies, I´d like to rebuilt a late gothic crossbow with a horn and sinew prod that must be spanned with a cranequin. I already did quite many researches for early cranequins (from about 1475) but I didn´t find many examples. Do you have good pictures of early gothic cranequins and maybe also mesurements? That would be really nice!

thank you in advance,

David
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Old 25th March 2012, 02:44 PM   #108
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Hi David,

Welcome here!

As to rebuilding a composite hornbow crossbow and a matching cranequin, believe me: it is virtually impossible!

In post #54, I posted a cross-section of a composite hornbow and detailed description. Please study carefully. Below I attach photos of a similar cross-sectioned hornbow fragment that I took in the reserve collection of the Historisches Museum Luzern in 1995.

I have heard of several people who, like you, tried to copy such an item and all failed in the end.
That's exactly why there is not one single replica of such a hornbow on the market!
As to the cranequin: I think the best idea would be to view a piece you would like to have in an upcoming auction, photograph it there and take all the measurements.

Again though: rebuilding it would prove to be a tremendous piece of toil. I suggest purchasing an original piece that works alright and use that. This will be both more efficient and cheaper as well.

Best,
Michael
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Old 25th March 2012, 03:04 PM   #109
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Old 27th March 2012, 09:32 AM   #110
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Thank you for the much detailed pictures of horn and sinew prods Michael!

Do you know if something like alum was mixed into the glue for making it more water proof?
As for the cranequin, I do think that such early original cranequins cost really much Did the style for cranequins like the one I attached on my first post already exist in 1475? I think this picture shows a cranequin from about 1500.

I think that I still will try making a crossbow even if it does not work for the first time. I´m really much interested in doing that and I know someone who already has made several composite crossbows from about 1300.

Do you know good books with many detailed examples of late gothic crossbows with horn and sinew prods? I already have read "Die Hornbogenarmbrust"

thank you and greetings,

David
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Old 27th March 2012, 01:28 PM   #111
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Hi David,

We do not know much about the materials but the only glue used it those periods was bone glue from animal bones. It was not at all 'water proof' but I have heard of the alum addition as well ...

I think that the cranequin you posted should be assigned to the early 16th c. Such pieces in good condition are between 2,500 and 3,000 euro, or you could purchase an imperfect one for less than 1,500 € and complete it yourself. I cannot imagine building a perfect one for less money. Did you ever have a look inside a gear box and take out the gear wheel of such a cranequin?

I'd like to get into contact with the guy you mentioned who built 13th c. composite bows and see photos of his productions!

The only other good book is
Egon Harmuth, Die Armbrust, Graz, 1975, and a later revised edition.

Do not expect to find a lot of images of original items in them though; that's why I started this thread! All original crossbows the photos of which I got hold of are posted here as long as there are a few close-ups.


Best,
Michael

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Old 27th March 2012, 04:35 PM   #112
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Hi Michael,

thanks for the book commendation! I will have a look at it!

You can google "historia vivens 1300" and you will find the homepage of the living history group where Andreas Bichler is a member. At "Realien", there are several of his crossbows (later models) and on "Bibliotek" you can read about penetration tests with different types of quarrels on a gambeson and mail shirt. It´s very interesting!

I know a good blacksmith who would forge a cranequin for me. I think that the price will be affordable, because he knows that I´m still passing my last year at grammar school. If the price is to high, I hope that I can do something for him like sewing etc...
He has a detailed plan of a 1530 cranequin. I think that system inside should be rather the same as in 1475 (the cog wheel of the older models might be smaller). So I´m searching for good patterns I could give him.

Might the two cranequins exposed in the "Churburger Rüstkammer" be better patterns for 1475 (with less decorations than the originals of cause)? There is a picture of these cranequins in "Die Hornbogenarmbrust" on page 114. How were the two sides of the gear box of late medieval cranequins matched together? With screws?

Thank you very much and best regards,

David
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Old 1st April 2012, 01:46 PM   #113
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Hi David,


I know that there are some copies of hornbow crossbows; when I said I thought it could not be done I meant, properly done - just exacty the way it was done 500 years ago.

Yes, the two Churburg cranequins (images attached from the Churburg catalog) rank among the finest in existence, together with the Odescalchi cranequin, of course. Their gear boxes are all decorated with Gothic tracery, of brass I think.

As you can see on the earliest known dated cranequin, 1504, once in my collection and now it that of a friend, gear boxes are fixed by iron tacks until at least the 1530's, sometimes up to the mid-16th century. In some cases they are riveted, though.

http://www.vikingsword.com/vb/showt...othic+crossbows


Best,
Michael
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Old 1st April 2012, 02:35 PM   #114
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More details of a fine Nuremberg cranequin by the 'Master of the crossed arrows', dated 1532, the gear box riveted. Formerly in my collection, and with my friend now.

Please note the close-up of the bottom side with the seam of copper soldering clearly visible.

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Old 1st April 2012, 02:53 PM   #115
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The finely wrought crank handles of two Nuremberg cranequins, both by the 'Master of the crossed arrows', dated 1532 and 1540 respectively, composed of boxwood and staghorn.

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Old 2nd April 2012, 12:56 PM   #116
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Default Crossbows, a Spanning Belt and a Cranequin, Munich, ca. 1475

One of the many depictions of the martyrdom of St. Sebastian, in the Wallraff-Richartz-Museum Köln/Cologne.

Please note that the obsolete spanning belt is still in use, side by side with the 'new' spanning device, the cranequin.

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Old 2nd April 2012, 01:34 PM   #117
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Default Two Cranequins in the Habsburg Waffensammlung Vienna

The first Late Gothic, ca. 1500, the belt hook missing;
the second was dated '2nd half 15th century' by the staff but, in spite of its Late Gothic brass tracery on the gear box, it should be actually dated to 'ca. 1530-40'; the belt hook a modern replacement.

Best,
Michael
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Old 2nd April 2012, 01:37 PM   #118
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One last close-up, the riveting of the (replaced) belt hook.
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Old 2nd April 2012, 01:54 PM   #119
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For close comparison with the foregoing cranequin, and to back its dating assigned by me, I attach images of a sample by the Nuremberg 'Master of the crossed arrows', dated 1540 and with almost identical punched trefoil decoration, from the collection of a friend.

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Old 14th April 2012, 11:56 PM   #120
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Default An Early-16th C. Crossbow in a Piece of Period Artwork of 1518-9

From the Herrenberg Altarpiece, painted by Jörg Ratgeb in 1518-9, now in the Staatsgalererie Stuttgart.

Please note that this plain Landsknecht crossbow is mounted with the characteristic early-16th c. steel bow and the tiller is depicted 'in the white', in its natural state and unvarnished, which of course was the cheapest possible version.

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