Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: Route 66
It would appear these tulwars are assemblages of components from old Indian armouries which may have been put together some time ago. The blades are Indian (having the distinct blunted edge near the hilt) and the markings are somewhat impressively executed versions of well known Styrian blade marks.
There is a great deal of consternation and debate over the meaning of the FRINGIA word and its variations, however it is generally found on sword blades through East Europe.
It would appear that the 'sickle marks' (dentated arcs) and 'cogwheel' arrangements with what appears to be perhaps 'ANDREA' (Ferara) may reflect same usage on Solingen blades.
These kinds of blades were well known in the trade entrepots in India, and the marks were widely copied, and impressively done often (as seen here) to assert 'quality' as Jens has noted.
It is interesting to see the shield disc, or what appears to be one, on the tulwar pommel. Similar radiating designs are well known inside the pommel disc, but the dome is atypical, and incongruent with the securing nut.
I would agree with the latter 19th c. on the bichaq, but can only presume the inscribed panel on the blade is in the manner of many Ottoman blades including yataghans of various forms.