Originally Posted by RobertGuy
Is this correct? I thought that the Vikings made mono steel blades as well as pattern welded. Most medieval European swords were mono steel and not wootz. I admit the quality varied but bloomery steel was available. Perhaps this is what you mean by laminated steel.
Medieval European steel was produced similar like japanese steel, it was laminated mono steel.
In Germany we have an own word for this type of steel: "refined steel" (Raffinierstahl). The raw steel from the furnace was very inhomogeneous and must be refined by laminating.
If you watch a medieval or renaissance sword or rapier carefully, you almost always can see traces of laminations. It depends on the quality of forging and the number of layers.
Unfortunately my English is too bad for more detailed explanations. Even in my german language it is not easy to explain.