Join Date: Nov 2012
Location: Halstenbek, Germany
Another two illustrations of the use of caltrops.
The first one is from Conrad Kyesers Bellifortis from 1460 showing two differnet types - and - protective iron soles.
The second illustration is also a Conrad Kyesers Bellifortis issue from 1411 also showing two different types as well as the arrow types with their wooden base for mounting into the ground. You can imagine, when this devices are rigidly fixed to the ground it will take much longer and will hold the attacked person much longer back than the lose ones.
The red dressed guy obviously drives a heavy barrel over the devices in order to dismantle the caltrops.
N.B. On this image you can see that the men are only wearing tights - probably with a thin leather sole sewn on the sole under the feet.