Join Date: Jan 2005
I apologise for being less than clear in what I have written.
I have attempted to be very specific in my explanation of the both the word "empu", and way in which it applies to the people I mentioned.It would appear that I have failed.
I shall try again.
Empu Suparman was a part of the heirarchy of the Kraton Surakarta Hadiningrat.
He held rank within the Kraton heirarchy, the names bestowed upon him by Sinuhun indicated his calling and assigned duties within that heirarchy.
Until the time of his death he was the official empu of the Kraton Surakarta.
Empu Djeno has a name bestowed by the Kraton Yogyakarta, but which I would need to look through reference material to find. That name will incorporate components that will clearly indicate his calling and duties within the Kraton heirarchy. He will also hold a rank within the Kraton heirarchy.Additionally, Empu Djeno claims descent from a line of empus.
Pauzan Pusposukadgo was given the name "Pusposukadgo" by the Kraton Surakarta. The components of this name are "Puspo" and "su" and "kadgo". The component "kadgo" indicates his calling within the Kraton heirarchy. "Kadgo" is a Javanese literary term for "keris"; it appears in Old Javanese, Kawi, and Sanskrit, where meanings vary from "keris" to "pedang" and "sword".This name clearly identifies Pauzan as an armourer. The fact that he has chosen not to be called an empu is a reflection of his religious committment, nothing to do with the recognition of his skills. Pauzan Pusposukadgo also holds a rank within the heirarchy of the Kraton Surakarta.
Empu Mangku Wije is a heriditary empu. As I explained in my earlier post, in Bali the empus were not a part of the Kraton system, but rather members of a clan apart from the rest of Balinese society. They provided their services upon request. Empu Mangku Wije has the right to call himself "empu" because of his line of descent, and because of his membership of the Pande clan, and because of his occupation in the making of Balinese ritual implements, tools, and weapons, including keris.
There can be no question that these four men are entitled to be known as "Empu".
However, as I also advised in my previous post:- "---however, there were instances of famous empus who were not designated thus by a Kraton, but rather came to be known as empu by the wider community.---"
Of course a person who is the descendant of a line of empus cannot call himself an empu if he is in fact a bookkeeper, but if that person works as an empu, in Bali he has the right to call himself an empu. In Jawa the designation of empu should come from the Kraton, where it will be indicated by the name given by Sinuhun at the time a Kraton rank is bestowed. But it must be noted, that in historic times some people were known as empus who never worked under the aegis of a kraton.
I trust that this further explanation clarifies the matter.