Plates from:
Herbert W. Krieger's
The Collection of Primitive Weapons and Armor of the Philippine Islands
in the United States National Museum
Smithsonian Institution; United States National Museum, Bulletin 137 (1926)

Plate 1. Philippine weapons of offense and defense. Spears, lances, and halberds. Bows, arrows, and arrow cases. Blowguns, darts, and dart cases. Clubbed weapons and shields. Hand weapons for piercing and stabbing. Bolos. Cutting and slashing blades. Swords for cutting and chopping. Beheading swords. Head axes. Straight and wavy krisses. Circular shields for parrying and targets. Oblong, pronged, clubbed, and tufted shields of hollowed wood. Body. armor of horn, hide, cordage, and fiber construction.

Plate 2. Projectile weapons: Blowguns, bows, arrows and darts, quiver and dart case. No. 1. Palmwood bow; highly polished, grooved, concavo-convex self-bow. Negritos, Zambales Mountains, Island of Luzon. 2. Heavy palmwood self-bow; flat surfaces, slightly concave on inner side. Negritos, Negros, Visayan Island, P.I. 3. Palmwood bow wrapped with rattan. Bagobo, Mindanao. 4. Palmwood bow; cord of bamboo splint. Moro, Mindanao. 5. Bamboo blowgun: Surface decorated with burned spiral bands and rings; lining tube of reed, sight elevation. Batak, Island of Palawan, Philippine Archipelago. 6. Arrow case of bamboo provided with rattan basketry cap. Moro, western Mindanao. 7.Blowgun darts and dart case. Batak, Palawan Island.

Plate 3. Simple and compound arrowheads of palmwood and bamboo. No. 1. Palmwood arrowhead and bamboo shaft. Moro, Mindanao. 2. Reed arrow with palmwood foreshaft. Moro, Mindanao. 3. Bamboo arrow with palmwood foreshaft; poisoned bamboo arrow point inserted in foreshaft. Bikol, Luzon. 4. Large arrow of bamboo with arrowhead of split bamboo, Bagobo, Mindanao. 5. Triagular shape arrowhead of bamboo, harpoon shaft. Negritos, Zambales Mouutains, Luzon. 6. Barbed, triangular bamboo arrowhead, harpoon shaft. Negritos, Zambales Mountains, Luzon Island. 7. Fish arrow with compound head of bamboo. Bagobo, Mindanao. 8. Three-pronged or trident compound arrow. Negritos. Zambales Mountains, Luzon.

Plate 4. Metallic harpoon and arrowheads provided with barbed, hastate, three-pointed, harpoon, and composite points. Shaftments. No. 1. Short, flat, lanceolate arrowhead,designed to make a large wound and to cause profuse bleeding. Negritos Zambales Mountains. 2. Long, triangular, iron arrow point, palmwood foreshaft, unfeathered cane shaft. Moro, western Mindanao. 3. Small, lanceolate shape iron arrowhead, long bamboo shaft; heavy palmwood foreshaft, bulbous at the base. Old Bikol arrow type. 4. Leaf-shape arrow point of sheet copper, bamboo shaft, foreshaft of wood fast set in shaft with resin. Moro. 5. Feathered bamboo shaft, large lanceolate shape arrow point. Negritos, Luzon. 6. Leaf-shape iron arrowhead of excellent workmanship socketed on hardwood shaft, no foreshaft. Moro, Jolo Archipelago. 7. Large feathered bamboo shaft, hastate shape iron arrow point. Negritos, Luzon. 8. Small triangular iron head, palmwood foreshaft, reed shaft. Moro, Mindanao. 9. Ferruled wooden shaft, long hastate shape barbed iron arrow point. Moro. 10. Long quadrangular barbed iron arrowhead. Negritos, Luzon. 11-13. Composite arrow shaftments; feathered shaft provided with lanyard and retrieving cord, barbed toggle harpoon type of arrow point. Designed for hunting pigs. Negritos.

Plate 5. Ceremonial, war, fishing, and hunting spears: Barbed, serpentine, harpoon, and compound types of iron and steel spearheads. No. 1. Hunting spear, harpoon type, bilaterally barbed. Moro, Mindanao. 2. Compound spearhead provided with three barbed prongs for use in fishing. Moro, Sulu Archipelago. 3. Serpentine form of steel spearhead socketed on palmwood shaft, shaft wound with plaited rattan and ferruled with brass. Mindanao. 4. Serpentine shape steel lance blade socketed on wooden shaft. Moro, Mindanao. 5. Iron war spear: Bilaterally recurved barbs, palmwood shaft wrapped with braided rattan, iron ferrule. 6. War spear: Hastate shape spear point provided with recurved guard barbs, metal tang inserted in hardwood shaft. Northern Luzon. 7-12. War spears: Multiple barbed iron spear points, short hardwood shafts, wrapped with braided rattan ferrules, iron cap or spud socketed on base of shafts. Igorot, northern Luzon. 11. Ceremonial spear provided with multiple barbs to frighten spirits or "anitos." Igorot, northern Luzon.

Plate 6. Spears used ceremonially and in war; shafts ornamented and figured with brass and silver overlay. No. 1. Cane shaft, rough-surfaced iron blade of good form. Moro. 2. Elliptic spearhead of iron with socket. Igorot, Luzon. 3. Bilaterally barbed iron spearhead with socket. Luzon. 4. Brass pike head: Two mythical bird figures supporting blade. Blade and socket engraved with geometric figures. Moro. 5. Fine workmanship in iron shown in deeply grooved and socketed spearhead; shaft ferruled with figured silver. Shaft is tasseled and capped with a spud of carabao horn at base. Moro, Mindanao. 6. Head of fine ironwork, deeply grooved and provided with median ridge. Ferrule of brass, collar cord and tassel, rattan shaft capped with spike at basal end, Moro. 7-8. Steel blades, shafts of palmwood wrapped with brass wire: Figured brass ferrule, Bagobo, southeastern Mindanao. 9. Long Iron blade, iron ferrule at neck; handed rings of rattan on shaft, tassel cord. Moro, Mindanao. 10. Blade of iron, thickened at distal end and tapering toward shaft, hardwood shaft ferruled with rattan and punched with brass rivets. Northern Luzon. 11. Short and broad iron spearhead fastened to rattan shaft by iron tang. Looped cord attached to neck of blade and to foreshaft of hardwood. Moro, Mindanao. 12. Finely wrought-iron spearhead; brass ferrule and iron shaft socket; hardwood shaft wound with spirals of figured brass and sheathed with alternating brass and silver hands. Bagobo, Mindanao.

Plate 7. Slashing and chopping blades: Kampilan and talibong. No. 1. Straight-edged steel kampilan, captured by the expedition under Capt. J. J. Pershing, 1903. Moro, Lake Lanao, Mindanao. 2. Curved and spiked steel talibong. Bagobo, Mindanao. 3. Curved and spiked talibong (grass cutter). Moro, Lake Lanao, northern Mindanao. 4. Kampilan blade with arabesque (floriated) etching on blade surfaces. Moro, Lake Lanao region, northern Mindanao.

Plate 8. Basketry bolo cases and knife sheaths. No. 1. Basketry parang and bolo scabbard. Rattan splints woven in hexagonal openwork at sides; framework of rattan. Basilan Island, Sulu Archipelago. 2. Combined knife sheath and reticule. Made from multiple folds of bast fiber; suspension cord of abaca. Batak, Palawan Island. 3. Bamboo bolo case. Cylindrical joint of bamboo with one end plugged with a split wooden disk; bound with braided rattan. Batak, Palawan Island, 4. Basketry bolo case made of woven rattan with wood base; suspension cord with belt attachment. Basilan Island.

Plate 9. Two-handed chopping and cutting parangs. No. 1. Heavy steel beheading blade "tabas." Curved and truncated like a scimitar; long curved double-handle grip wrapped with braided rattan and inlaid with lime. Moro, Malabang, Mindanao. 2. Heavy chopping blade "talibong," double sigmoid curve. Two-handed carved wooden handle hooped with brass bands. Moro, Mindanao. 3. Headsman's ax "talibong." Moro, western Mindanao. 4. Beheading sword and chopping blade "talibong." Heavy double-edged curved blade. Moro, Mindanao. 5. Heavy two-edged blade with sigmoid curve. Hexagonal wooden handle curved and wound with rattan splints. Moro, Mindanao. 6. Broad backed, deeply concave blade "pirah." Convexly curved cutting edge and long point. Elbow at base of blade near guard piece similar to the parang-latok of the Dyaks of Borneo; figured wood handle provided with symbolic recurved horns and median spike. Southern and Visayan Islands.

Plate 10. Head axes. Primitive Malayan and Indonesian tribes of north central Luzon. No. 1. Head-hunter's ax. Hardwood handle ferruled and shod with silver and brass bands. Kalinga, north central Luzon. 2. Head ax. Made of iron with bowed back and crescentic cutting edge; metal tang set in hardwood handle provided with long, hourglass-shape iron ferrule; handle equipped with carved hand-fitting grip and spur extension for hand support; plain surfaced. Kalinga, north central Luzon.

Plate 11. The barong: Specialized ornamental parang types. No. 1. Lanceolate shape broad-backed steel blade of exceptional excellence; hardwood handle grip sheathed with silver; pommel fashioned of dugong ivory in ornamental pattern of scrolls and fretwork; characteristic flat-surfaced hardwood scabbard. Moro, Mindanao. 2. Lanceolate broad-backed blade; handle shod with ferruled silver bands and silver-braided wire; scrolled hardwood pommel. Presented to President Theodore Roosevelt by the Samal Moro, Basilan Island.

Plate 12. The bolo: Combination piercing and chopping weapons; agricultural knives and jungle tools. No. 1. Curved blade of steel with flattened surface on inner side and median ridge on beveled outer surface; octagonal hardwood handle. Tagalog, central Luzon. 2. Bolo with steel blade point broken off. Handle consists of elaborately carved carabao horn. Luzon. 3. Broad-backed steel blade provided with convex cutting edge; handle completely shod with figured brass. Bagobo, southern Mindanao. 4. Bolo having chased iron blade inlaid with soft metal; beautifully carved carabao-horn handle. Cebu, Visayan Islands. 5. Boy's barong; small elliptic steel blade; carved hardwood handle ferruled with silver bands and braided silver cord. Taken in 1913 at Mount Talipao, Mindanao. 6. Steel blade, "pirah" acutely pointed and convexly curved; provided with sharp downward curve near handle similar to the Malayan parang-latok; hardwood handle equipped with symbolic recurved horns and spike. Cebu, Visayan Islands. 7. Concavo-convex grooved steel blade; brass-shod handle and guard spike. Bagobo, southern Mindanao. 8. Kampilan-bolo type; chain ornament on hardwood pommel. Bagobo, southeastern Mindanao. 9. Grotesque totemic or wyang carving on wood handle; circular guard of wood; old type of Malay weapon. Panay, Visayan Islands. 10. Pirah. Cutting edge of blade has sweeping convex curve; heavy, concave blade back; truncated slope at point; handle fashioned of carabao horn and provided with long extension arm support. Moro, Basilan Island.

Plate 13. Hand weapons for cutting, piercing, and stabbing: Knives and daggers. No. 1. Dagger; triangular sectioned, curved, and pointed blade; single cutting edge; carved wood handle. Quinapundar, Samar Island. 2. Dagger "bala-rao"; hastate shape double-edged blade; handle provided with a peculiar finger-fitting grip consisting of extended tang and two horns; silver ferrule at center. Chief defense weapon of the Mandayan, southeastern Mindanao. 3. Woman's knife. Blade curved, designed for striking a slanting blow. Bagobo, southeastern Mindanao. 4. Plain dirk-dagger having curved blade, ferruled wooden handle, and circular guard. Moro, Mindanao. 5. Serpentine Malay dagger; grotesque dugong ivory carving on hilt. Collected by the United States exploring expedition, 1838-1842, under Admiral Wilkes. 6. Malay dagger; curved wooden pistol shape hilt; characteristic serpentine figure carving; straight-edged blade. Wilkes exploring expedition. 7. Serpentine kris-dagger; plain horn handle; engraved circular silver guard and ferrule. Moro, Mindanao. 8. Malay dagger; laminated blade; figured and carved handle of wood. Dyak, Pasir River, southeast Borneo. 9. Punal de kris; blade chased on surface section near handle; wood handle set in socketed brass ferrule. Moro, Mindanao. 10. Dagger; curved, double-edged blade; curved plain wood handle. Moro, Mindanao. 11. Dagger having saberlike blade; metal guard provided with volute tips; carved wood handle; blade chased and inlaid with soft metal at back. Moro, Jolo. 12. Dagger; serpentine blade; metal cross guard; spiral fluted grip of Camagon wood. 13. "Insurrecto" sword-dagger chased blade, pointed and double edged; cross guard; horn handle inlaid with shell mosaic; symbolically figured pommel.

Plate 14. Types of wavy and straight-edged krisses. Moro, Mindanao, and Sulu Archipelago. No. 1. Old type of serpentine grooved blade provided with ornamental guard piece and sword breaker fastened with single stirrup; round wooden grip covered with bands of braided rattan. Moro, Mindanao. 2. Datto's kris, of recent production; blade inlaid with sinuous, dragonlike pattern in yellow metal; grip of wood. Lake Lanao, Moro, Mindanao. 3. Serpentine blade inlaid with figured patterns in yellow brass; improvised handle of wood. Moro, Mindanao. 4. Long, tapering serpentine blade; curved guard of silver; elaborately carved horn handle. Kris type showing Spanish influence. 5. Slightly sinuous steel blade; handle wrapped with braided waxed cord on grip section; carved pommel of sea cow ivory; plain old-style wood scabbard. Moro. 6. Straight-edged, slightly curved blade; handle covered with braided cord bands which also serve to fasten spiked stirrup extension for fastening guard and handle to blade. Moro. 7. Serpentine blade; hardwood handle overlaid with banded sheet silver and braided silver cord; crutch-shaped pommel of solid silver. Jolo Island. 8. Serpentine blade; grooved and inlaid with gold metal; single stirrup; wood handle banded with silver and wrapped with silver braid; carved cockatoo-shape ivory pommel. Admiral Wilkes exploring expedition, 1838 -1842. 9. Straight-edged blade, etched and inlaid with copper; wrapped plain flat wood handle. 10. Very old type of grooved flame-shaped blade; symbolically carved ivory figurine on pommel; three-sectioned wood scabbard. Collected by the expedition under Capt. J. J. Pershing, 1903. Lake Lanao, Mindanao.

Plate 15. Plumed helmets of brass; coats of chain mail provided with plates of brass and horn. Moro, Mindanao, and Jolo Islands. Nos. 1-2. Plumed, crested, and figured brass helmets; Moro manufacture, but modeled after design of fifteenth century Spanish burganet. Jolo Island. 3. Cuirass of chain armor and brass plates; chain links taken from old Spanish armor; brass plates of Moro Manufacture. Moro, Mindanao. 4. Cuirass of chain armor; plates of carabao horn highly polished and overlaid with ornamental figures in silver. Moro manufacture, Mindanao.

Plate 16. Negrito man drawing bow, showing method of arrow release. (Two cuts.) Pampanga Province, Luzon.

Plate 17. Negrito man drawing bow, showing types of simple iron arrow points (above) and of composite harpoon arrow types (below).

Plate 18. Igorot men carrying characteristic weapons, including pronged shields, spears, and head axes. Bontok, north central Luzon.

Plate 19. Tinggian hunters, showing type of hardwood bow together with arrows provided with bamboo points and spurred foreshaft. Abra, Benguet Province, north Luzon.

Plate 20. Guingas man garbed in maroon jacket. Young Bagobo warriors provided with their characteristic side arms. Davao Province, southeastern Mindanao.

Plate 21. Bagobo warriors In full dress and completely equipped with weapons of their own manufacture. Davao Province, Mindanao.

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